Everyone should know that an attractive, highly legible font makes a good impression on the reader. But can font selection work on a deeper level, making your brief either more or less persuasive? It can.
This insight comes from a book I’ve been reading by Daniel Kahneman, Thinking, Fast and Slow. In one chapter, Kahneman describes the concepts of cognitive ease versus cognitive strain. Cognitive ease describes the reader’s state when the reader feels that the message is familiar, easy to accept, and true. Cognitive strain describes the opposite state, when the reader feels that the message is unfamiliar and more difficult to accept. As Kahneman describes it, “When you are in a state of cognitive ease, you are probably in a good mood, like what you see, believe what you hear, trust your intuitions, and feel that the current situation is comfortably familiar.” On the other hand, “[w]hen you feel strained, you are more likely to be vigilant and suspicious ....”
Many factors can contribute to the reader’s cognitive ease, including the reader’s good mood, sense of familiarity (the feeling, “I knew that”), and having been primed. Another factor is clear display: a message printed in a clear font on high-quality paper. Anything that you do to foster cognitive ease and reduce cognitive strain will make your message more persuasive.
One way to foster cognitive ease is to make the writing as legible as possible. This means using the highest quality, most legible font available, printed in an easily readable size on high-quality paper. Experiments have shown that a sentence printed in a highly readable font is more likely to be believed than the same sentence written in a less legible font.
That’s what Kahneman suggests. Here’s my additional suggestion: For first drafts, use an ugly, less legible font (such as Courier); wait for the final draft before converting to a gorgeous font. Why? Because when you are editing a first draft, you don’t want cognitive ease; you want cognitive strain. You want to induce skepticism and vigilance in your editors (including yourself).
Kahneman describes an experiment where subject were given a set of three brain teasers to solve. Half of the subjects got the puzzles in a legible font; the other half got the same puzzles in a small font with poor contrast. The difference in the error rates was striking: 90% of subjects who got the puzzles in a legible font made at least one mistake; the error rate dropped to 35% when the font was barely legible.
So if you want your editors to read your drafts with a critical eye, don’t make the drafts impossible to read, but do make them a little harder to read than the final product. Put them in Courier. After the draft has been thoroughly edited, convert it to the best font available before finalizing.
p.s. (30 Aug. 2019): Several years ago, I wrote an article suggesting the use of ugly fonts for early drafts. Here’s a link to the PDF.