Good advice on issue selection
La. 5th Circuit’s electronic-notice system

How U.S. 5th Circuit judges read briefs

These past two days, I’ve been attending the annual Appellate Advocacy Seminar put on by the Bar Association of the Fifth Federal Circuit. The entire seminar was great, but perhaps the most valuable information came from the clerk of court, Lyle Cayce. Mr. Cayce revealed that most of the judges read brief on iPads. But before the briefs are downloaded to the iPad, they are run through a program that automatically turns all the legal citations into hyperlinks, linking to either Lexis or Westlaw. So whenever the judge comes across a legal citation, the judge can click on the link and can instantly see the cited authority.

There’s more. The district courts in the Fifth Circuit are moving toward electronic records on appeal. Fifth Circuit Rule 28.2.2 is going to be amended to require a uniform method of citing the record: “ROA.[page number].” Why? Because someone has developed a program that can convert all properly formatted record citations into hyperlinks, which will link to the cited page of the electronic record. The program will recognize “ROA.[page number]” as a record citation and automatically create the hyperlink.

Mr. Cayce hopes to make the hyperlinked versions of the briefs available on PACER. But meanwhile, the information he provided is going to change the way I write U.S. Fifth Circuit briefs.

Here is the change: Before today, I used footnotes for some legal citations and all record citations. From now on, all the important citations, including record citations, are going to be in main text, not in footnotes. From a typographic standpoint, this may be aesthetically unpleasing. But from a reader-friendly standpoint, it is the way to go when you realize that all those citations are going to be hyperlinks. To make the on-screen reader’s job easier, you want that hyperlink to be located as close as possible to the associated text. You don’t want to make your reader do the extra work of scrolling down the page to find the hyperlink.


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Mason Floyd

Do you know what program the 5th Circuit uses? Some judges in the U.S. Tax Court require hyperlinks for briefs. However, the lawyers have to incorporate them.


Sorry, Mason, I don’t.

Karen Kimball

Good information. Thank you. I hope every court will do this.


Hello Ray & Mason,

Mason, just spoke with Chief of Technology for the 5th Circuit, who developed the software used by the Circuit to convert hyperlinks. He is happy to inform us that the application will be made available to all circuits in the near future. Many of the district courts in LA are also testing the program and have expressed interest.


That’s good to hear. Thanks for the information.


What at timely post. I have a brief due in the 5th Circuit in a few weeks. Will certainly change the record references to the new format for ease of conversion.

Victoria Ayeni

can uniform system of citation be used in a 5th circuit court


Is there any reason why this software, or components of it, cannot soon be released to the public under an open source license?

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